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Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female.
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We test this model in the case of Albania, which has experienced a rapid catch up in urbanization and large-scale emigration since the end of communist rule in 1990 (Carletto et al. We focus on how the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international migrations has been mediated by the economic and political hierarchy of cities, and by the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows.
The first two sections provide an overview of the Albanian context to set the scene for the country’s post-communist mobility transition.
We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models.
Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis.It predicts that rural-to-urban migration accompanies the process of economic development, whereas emigration increases in the take-off phase but levels off at more advanced stages.Yet the role played by social processes and spatial inequalities in development in the course of the mobility transition remains under-appreciated.Urbanization driven by rural-to-urban migration sustains socioeconomic development in less developed and transition countries through agglomeration economies and improved access to public services (World Bank ), sustained outflows may drain a country’s labor force and development potential.These internal and international movements (hereafter also referred to as out-/in-migration and e-/immigration, respectively) have been studied intensively but independently from each other, and mainly in rural areas.Demonstrations and riots against the communist regime in 1990–1991 led to the collapse of the economic and political system.