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For an update on the science, read “Zero transmission with condomless anal sex and undetectable viral loads in PARNTER Study,” and “Raw sex: What the research says about risk when you’re undetectable.

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The mechanism of CD4 T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor.

During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4 Immune activation, which is reflected by the increased activation state of immune cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, results from the activity of several HIV gene products and the immune response to ongoing HIV replication.

It is also linked to the breakdown of the immune surveillance system of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier caused by the depletion of mucosal CD4 The CDC's classification system is more frequently adopted in developed countries.

Since the WHO's staging system does not require laboratory tests, it is suited to the resource-restricted conditions encountered in developing countries, where it can also be used to help guide clinical management.

Here are some key terms and concepts to help HIV-positive and HIV-negative folks understand and explore what “undetectable” means.

While suppressing the virus to undetectable levels has clear benefits for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative people, treatment as prevention is just one strategy for preventing new HIV infections.

Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period.

Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses.

Other essential tools for HIV prevention include condoms and lube, sterile syringes for people who inject drugs or hormones, Pr EP for HIV-negative individuals, regular HIV testing, self-education about HIV and sexual health, and open communication with sex partners.

Emily Claymore is a Masters in Public Health student at the University of California, Berkeley, and is currently an intern with San Francisco AIDS Foundation.

and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally.

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